Saturday 23 June 2012



Pineapple (Ananas comosus), a tropical plant with edible multiple fruit consisting of coalesced berries, named for resemblance to the pine cone, is the most economically important plant in the Bromeliaceae family. Pineapples may be cultivated from a crown cutting of the fruit, possibly flowering in 20–24 months and fruiting in the following six months.
Pineapple may be consumed fresh, canned, juiced, and are found in a wide array of food stuffs – dessert, fruit salad, jam, yogurt, ice cream, candy, and as a complement to meat dishes. In addition to consumption, in the Philippines the pineapple's leaves are used as the source of a textile fiber called piña, and is employed as a component of wall paper and furnishings, amongst other uses.
The word "pineapple" in English was first recorded in 1398, when it was originally used to describe the reproductive organs of conifer trees (now termed pine cones). The term "pine cone" for the reproductive organ of conifer trees was first recorded in 1694. When European explorers discovered this tropical fruit, they called them "pineapples" (first so referenced in 1664 due to resemblance to what is now known as the pine cone).
In the scientific binomial Ananas comosus, ananas, the original name of the fruit, comes from the Tupi word nanas, meaning "excellent fruit", as recorded by André Thevet in 1555, and comosus, "tufted", refers to the stem of the fruit. Other members of the Ananas genus are often called "pine", as well, by laymen.
Many languages use the Tupian term ananas. In Spanish, pineapples are called piña "pine cone" in Spain and most Hispanic American countries, or ananá (ananás in Argentina) (see the piña colada drink). They have varying names in the languages of India: ananas  in Marathi, anaasa in Telugu, Sapuri-PaNasa  in Oriya language, annachi pazham (Tamil), anarosh (Bengali), and in Malayalam, kaitha chakka. In Malay, pineapples are known as nanas or nenas. In the Maldivian language of Dhivehi, pineapples are known as alanaasi. A large, sweet pineapple grown especially in Brazil is called abacaxi. Along the Swahili-speaking coast of East Africa, the fruit is known as nanasi.


The pineapple is a herbaceous perennial which grows to 1.0 to 1.5 meters (3.3 to 4.9 ft) tall, although sometimes it can be taller. In appearance, the plant itself has a short, stocky stem with tough, waxy leaves. When creating its fruit, it usually produces up to 200 flowers, although some large-fruited cultivars can exceed this. Once it flowers, the individual fruits of the flowers join together to create what is commonly referred to as a pineapple. After the first fruit is produced, side shoots (called 'suckers' by commercial growers) are produced in the leaf axils of the main stem. These may be removed for propagation, or left to produce additional fruits on the original plant. Commercially, suckers that appear around the base are cultivated. It has 30 or more long, narrow, fleshy, trough-shaped leaves with sharp spines along the margins that are 30 to 100 centimeters (1.0 to 3.3 ft) long, surrounding a thick stem. In the first year of growth, the axis lengthens and thickens, bearing numerous leaves in close spirals. After 12 to 20 months, the stem grows into a spike-like inflorescence up to 15 cm (6 in) long with over 100 spirally arranged, trimerous flowers, each subtended by a bract. Flower colors vary, depending on variety, from lavender, through light purple to red.
The ovaries develop into berries which coalesce into a large, compact, multiple accessory fruit. The fruit of a pineapple is arranged in two interlocking helices, eight in one direction, thirteen in the other, each being a Fibonacci number.
Pineapple carries out CAM photosynthesis, fixing carbon dioxide at night and storing it as the acid malate and then releasing it during the day, aiding photosynthesis.

Pineapple in the starting stage
Pollination is required for seed formation, but the presence of seeds negatively affects the quality of the fruit. In Hawaii, where pineapple is cultivated on an agricultural scale, importation of hummingbirds is prohibited for this reason. Certain bat-pollinated wild pineapples only open their flowers at night.

Culinary uses

The flesh and juice of pineapples are used in cuisines around the world. In many tropical countries, pineapple is prepared, and sold on roadsides as a snack. They are sold whole, or in halves with a stick inserted. Whole, cored slices with a cherry in the middle are a common garnish on hams in the West. Chunks of pineapple are not only used in desserts such as fruit salad, but also as a main ingredient in savory dishes, such in hamburgers, and as a pizza topping. Crushed pineapple is used in yogurt, jam, sweets, and ice cream. The juice of the pineapple is served as a beverage, and is also as a main ingredient in such cocktails as the Piña colada.


Raw pineapple is an excellent source of manganese (76% Daily Value (DV) in a one US cup serving) and vitamin C (131% DV per cup serving).
Mainly from its stem, pineapple contains a proteolytic enzyme, bromelain, which breaks down protein. If having sufficient bromelain content, raw pineapple juice may be used as a meat marinade and tenderizer. Pineapple enzymes can interfere with the preparation of some foods, such as jelly or other gelatin-based desserts, but would be destroyed during cooking and canning. The quantity of bromelain in the fruit is probably not significant, being mostly in the inedible stalk. Furthermore, an ingested enzyme like bromelain is unlikely to survive intact the proteolytic processes of digestion.


The plant is indigenous to South America and is said to originate from the area between Southern Brazil and Paraguay; however, it is important to note that little is known about the origin of the domesticated pineapple (Pickersgill, 1976). M.S. Bertoni (1919) considered the ParanáParaguay River drainages to be the place of origin of A. comosus. The natives of southern Brazil and Paraguay spread the pineapple throughout South America, and it eventually reached the Caribbean. Columbus discovered it in 1493 in the Indies and brought it back with him to Europe thus making the pineapple the first bromeliad to leave the New World. The Spanish introduced it into the Philippines, Hawaii (introduced in the early 19th century, first commercial plantation 1886), Zimbabwe and Guam. Many say the fruit was first introduced in Hawaii when a Spanish ship brought them there in the 1500s. The fruit was cultivated successfully in European hothouses, and pineapple pits, beginning in 1720.
Although it was discovered by Captain Cook, John Kidwell is credited with the introduction of the pineapple industry in Hawaii. Large-scale pineapple cultivation by U.S. companies began in the early 1900s on Hawaii. Among the most famous and influential pineapple industrialists was James Dole who moved to Hawaii in 1899 and started a pineapple plantation in 1900. The companies Dole and Del Monte began growing pineapple on the island of Oahu in 1901 and 1917, respectively. Dole's pineapple company began with the acquisition of 60 acres (24 ha) of land in 1901, and, as previously mentioned, has grown into a major company today. Maui Pineapple Company began pineapple cultivation on the island of Maui in 1909. In 2006, Del Monte announced its withdrawal from pineapple cultivation in Hawaii, leaving only Dole and Maui Pineapple Company in Hawaii as the USA's largest growers of pineapples. Maui Pineapple Company markets its Maui Gold brand of pineapple and Dole markets its Hawaii Gold brand of pineapple.

An unripe pineapple
In the USA in 1986, the Pineapple Research Institute was dissolved and its assets were divided between Del Monte and Maui Land and Pineapple. Del Monte took variety 73–114, which it dubbed MD-2, to its plantations in Costa Rica, found it to be well-suited to growing there, and launched it publicly in 1996. (Del Monte also began marketing 73–50, dubbed CO-2, as Del Monte Gold). In 1997, Del Monte began marketing its Gold Extra Sweet pineapple, known internally as MD-2. MD-2 is a hybrid that originated in the breeding program of the now-defunct Pineapple Research Institute in Hawaii, which conducted research on behalf of Del Monte, Maui Land & Pineapple Company, and Dole.

Traditional medicine and preliminary research

Both the root and fruit may be eaten or applied topically as an anti-inflammatory or as a proteolytic agent. In some practices, it may be used to induce abortion or menstruation or as an antihelminthic agent.
Bromelain purified from pineapple stem or fresh juice, then provided in the diet over six months, decreased the severity of colonic inflammation in mice with experimental colitis.

Pests and diseases

Pineapples are subject to a variety of diseases, the most serious of which is wilt disease vectored by mealybugs typically found on the surface of pineapples, but possibly in the closed blossom cups. Other diseases include pink disease, bacterial heart rot, anthracnose, fungal heart rot, root rot, black rot, butt rot, fruitlet core rot, and yellow spot virus. Pink disease is characterized by the fruit developing a brownish to black discoloration when heated during the canning process. The causal agents of pink disease are the bacteria Acetobacter aceti, Gluconobacter oxydans, and Pantoea citrea.
Some pests that commonly affect pineapple plants are scales, thrips, mites, mealybugs, ants, and symphylids.

Storage and transport
Pineapple prepared for sale in Haikou, Hainan, China
Some buyers prefer green fruit, others ripened or off-green. A plant growth regulator, Ethephon, is typically sprayed onto the fruit one week before harvest, developing ethylene, which turns the fruit golden yellow. After cleaning and slicing, they are typically canned in sugar syrup with added preservative.
A pineapple will never become any riper than it was when harvested, though a fully ripe pineapple can bruise and rot quickly.
The fruit itself is quite perishable and storage of it should be taken seriously. If it is stored at room temperature, it should be used within two days; however, if it is refrigerated, the time span is extended to five to seven days.

Usage in culture

In the Caribbean, Europe and North America, the pineapple became associated with the return of ships from extended voyages, and an emblem of welcome and hospitality that made its way into contemporary art.

Traditional medicine and preliminary research

Both the root and fruit may be eaten or applied topically as an anti-inflammatory or as a proteolytic agent. In some practices, it may be used to induce abortion or menstruation or as an antihelminthic agent.
Bromelain purified from pineapple stem or fresh juice, then provided in the diet over six months, decreased the severity of colonic inflammation in mice with experimental colitis.

Pests and diseases

Pineapples are subject to a variety of diseases, the most serious of which is wilt disease vectored by mealybugs typically found on the surface of pineapples, but possibly in the closed blossom cups. Other diseases include pink disease, bacterial heart rot, anthracnose, fungal heart rot, root rot, black rot, butt rot, fruitlet core rot, and yellow spot virus. Pink disease is characterized by the fruit developing a brownish to black discoloration when heated during the canning process. The causal agents of pink disease are the bacteria Acetobacter aceti, Gluconobacter oxydans, and Pantoea citrea.
Some pests that commonly affect pineapple plants are scales, thrips, mites, mealybugs, ants, and symphylids.

          Health Benefits of Eating Pineapples

Pineapples are some of the most popular tropical fruits in the world. They are sweet, juicy, and delicious. More importantly, they are very healthy and nutritious. It is no wonder many people who want to have a healthy lifestyle include these fruits in their diets. To know more about them, here are some of the many health benefits of eating pineapples.

1. Packed with Vitamins and Minerals

Pineapples are loaded with vitamins and minerals including vitamin A, vitamin C, calcium, phosphorus, and potassium. It is also rich in fiber and calories. On top of it all, this fruit is low in fat and cholesterol. All the nutrients it contains promote good health.

2. Prevents Cough and Colds

Since pineapples are rich in vitamin C, it can fight off viruses that cause cough and colds. Even when you are already infected with such ailment, pineapples can help you. These fruits have bromelain, which is effective in suppressing coughs and loosening mucus. Eating pineapples while taking the right medications prescribed by the doctor for your sickness can help you recover more quickly.

3. Strengthens Bones

Pineapples are also popular for their ability to build and maintain strong bones. This is because these fruits contain manganese, which is a trace mineral that your body needs to build bones and connective tissues. In fact, if you consume a cup of pineapple, you can already get 73 percent of your total body requirement for manganese.

4. Keeps Gums Healthy

People are always very concerned with their teeth that they sometimes fail to give importance to the gums, which are equally essential since they hold the teeth in place. If a person has unhealthy gums, his/her teeth would be in bad condition, and eventually will fall out. Eating pineapple will strengthen your gums that will help keep your teeth healthy and strong.

5. Lowers Risk of Macular Degeneration

Pineapples are known to prevent different kinds of ailments. One example is macular degeneration. This disease, which is the primary cause of vision loss in adults, is caused by damage to the retina. Reading, recognizing faces, and doing daily activities can become a lot more difficult because of this problem. Including pineapple in your diet can lower risk of this disease by as much as 36 percent. This is because this fruit contains beta carotene that is good for our sense of sight.

6. Alleviates Arthritis

Since these fruits have anti-inflammatory qualities, eating pineapples can greatly alleviate the pain of arthritis while at the same time improve the condition by strengthening the bones. Apart from arthritis, it can also improve other similar conditions like carpal tunnel syndrome and gout.

7. Improves Digestion

Bromelain found in pineapples work to neutralize fluids to ensure that they are not too acidic. It also helps regulate the secretions in the pancreas to aid in digestion. Apart from that, since bromelain has protein-digesting properties, it can keep the digestive track healthy.


Pineapples are a nutritious tropical fruit, available fresh, canned or as juice. The fruits contain a number of nutrients, including sugars, fiber and a range of vitamins and minerals essential for your health. Pineapple juice has a number of health effects, and can make up a part of a nutritious and well-balanced diet.

Protection Against Cancer
One positive effect of pineapple juice is consumption of vitamin C. The vitamin is found at high levels within pineapple fruit, and remains dissolved in water within pineapple juice, so each serving of pineapple juice contains high levels of vitamin C. The Linus Pauling Institute at Oregon State University explains that vitamin C acts as an antioxidant -- it prevents and protects against damage by free radicals. Over time, free radical damage can lead to DNA damage in cells, leading to genetic mutations that can lead to diseases such as cancer. As a result, the antioxidant activity of vitamin C is linked to a lower risk of breast, and vitamin C can prevent the formation of cancer-causing chemicals in the stomach, reports the Linus Pauling Institute.

Strong Teeth and Bones

Pineapple juice also contains other essential nutrients, such as calcium. As a result, drinking pineapple juice has a number of health benefits associated with adequate calcium consumption. Among these is the maintenance of strong teeth and healthy bone tissue. Both your bones and teeth are partially composed of a mineral called hydroxyapatate, which contains calcium. Dietary calcium consumption supports the formation of new mineralized bone tissue, allowing your body to maintain proper bone density, explains the Linus Pauling Institute. Including calcium-rich foods, like pineapple juice, into your diet may help maintain health bones and teeth.

Effect on Blood Sugar
One effect of drinking pineapple juice is an increase in blood sugar shortly after consumption. Like many fruit juices, pineapple juice contains high amounts of natural sugar, called fructose. When consuming pineapple juice, a large amount of sugar becomes available for absorption immediately after consumption, with little digestion required.You body absorbs the fructose from the juice, then can easily convert it into glucose -- the sugar "fuel" used by your cells. This leads to a temporary blood sugar spike. If you suffer from disorders related to blood sugar regulation, such as diabetes, The University of California San Francisco recommends avoiding sugar-rich foods, including juices, to help regulate your blood sugar.


Pineapple is a tropical fruit endogenous to South America. It contains numerous vitamins such as vitamin C and B1, minerals such as manganese and enzymatic proteins. Bromelaine is proteolytic enzyme found in the stem and core of the pineapple. It is responsible for many of the therapeutic effects of pineapple such as increased digestion, improved immunity, anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic activity. A pineapple slice is only 40 calories and is primarily composed of fiber and water, both of which inhibit weight gain and are essential for weight loss.

Bromelain is a protelytic enzyme found in the stem and core of pineapple. It is used to reduce swelling and inflammation, heal wounds, treat infections and improve digestion, notes the University of Maryland Medical Center. Bromelain breaks down proteins in the digestive track and stimulates muscular contraction in the intestine. Improved digestion of proteins provides the body with increased energy reserves for cellular and metabolic processes.
Additionally, proper digestion is an energy-consuming process, so cells require energy to burn calories which, in turn, increases your metabolic rate, boosts your oxygen consumption and results in weight loss. Poor digestion can also result in an accumulation of toxins that can impair your immune system, decrease your energy level, cause lethargy, drop your metabolic rate and cause weight gain.

Dietary Fiber

Pineapple is classified as a negative-calorie fruit because it only contains 40 calories and the amount of energy used to digest it is greater than the caloric gain. One raw pineapple contains 1.4 g of dietary fiber. Fiber contains no calories on its own, takes a longer time to chew and triggers the body's feeling of satiation or being full.

Since fiber is not digested by enzymatic proteins in the stomach, it passes through the digestive track and forms a gel that binds to fats and cholesterol and gets rid of them, thereby preventing weight gain. It also regulates the release and absorption of carbohydrates, so it promotes energy metabolism and expenditure as opposed to fat storage.

Pineapple contains significant amounts of water and triggers the feeling of satiety and prevents overeating and excessive caloric consumption. Water is essential to all physiological processes in the body, with 85 percent of the brain being water. Water is also a lubricant in digestion and regulates body temperature.

Since water plays such a vital part in each physiological function, in periods of dehydration, the body will hold on to water to ensure its survival, resulting in increased blood volume and increased weight. By drinking water, your body volume becomes regulated, digestion is increased, toxins which may impair your immune system are flushed out, you feel full, consume less calories and lose weight.

A decreased caloric intake and increased energy expenditure results in weight loss. Pineapple does not contain sugar or a significant amount of carbohydrates or fat, thus it does not result in fat storage. A healthy lifestyle with healthy foods such as fruits like pineapple, dark leafy vegetables and lean meats can help you prevent weight gain.


Is it safe to take pineapple during pregnancy? Is it advisable at the end of a pregnancy to take pineapple juice or eat the flesh in order to bring on labour?
Eating pineapple or drinking pineapple juice is said to be an old wive’s tale to bring on labour for woman past their due date. Large amounts of pineapple juice can,  in fact, cause uterine contractions. It’s for this reason that in early pregnancy, it’s often suggested that you don’t drink pineapple juice in excess amounts.

Why pineapple can cause contractions

Fresh pineapple contains Bromelain which can also soften the cervix . But it is said that it takes large quantities to have any effect which can also result in diarrhea. Some women say that they’ve had zero problems having plenty of pineapple and pineapple and pineapple juice during pregnancy and others claim it brought on labour.
The verdict on pineapple during pregnancy?
Some would say that you should eat it in moderation and watch for any signs of problems before your due date.
If you’re at or past your due date, it might help you bring on labour.



Why do men eat pineapple?
Pineapple is an edible fruit more commonly found in tropical areas. As it can be eaten in a variety of ways, it can also incorporated in salads, main courses and desserts. Is it creatively and sumptuously useful in a lot ways. Because of its sweet-sour taste that may be highly unpredictable, pineapple has widely been cultivated in many parts of the world. Also, many eat pineapples because aside from the fact that it is a good source of vitamin C, it is also rich in vitamins B1, B2 and B6 as well as bromelain, which is a protein digesting enzymes that were claimed to be helpful in one’s digestion. In some countries like in the Philippines, pineapples are also utilized to produce a fabric called piña. The word pineapple comes from Brazil which literally means excellent fruit.
Pineapples are excellent indeed especially for men. Many studies have already been conducted on the effects of pineapple to men and why men should such variety of fruit. Based on the studies done, pineapple has direct effects on men. Pineapples contain an estimate of 10% thiamine. This vitamin is functions as an important element for chemical reactions to occur and boosts one’s level of energy. So for men, increase in one’s energy also means increase in his sexual urges or libido. In addition to that, intake of pineapples makes men’s semen tastes like that of pineapples. That is, semen will have a sweet-sour light taste. Aside from the good smell and taste that pineapple effects on men’s semen, pineapples were also found to increase the number of sperm that men produce in every ejaculation.



The pineapple is one of the most sought-after juices on the market today. Used widely in alcoholic drinks for its sweetness and in various cooking dishes to accentuate other fruits, it is high in vitamins and minerals and is one of the most popular of all grocery store fruits. The tree is an exotic symbol and has been the focus of many vacations, tourist parties and beach luaus. Does this Spark an idea?


·         The pineapple has been a desirable fruits for many years in the United States. It has been used for trade, food and in tribal feasts. The European use of the pineapple can be traced to 1493, when Christopher Columbus and his crew were sailing in the Caribbean. Columbus and his crew discovered piles of the harvested fruit near human body parts on a volcanic island now known as Guadeloupe. The crew ate and documented the fruit.


·         Pineapple juice has laxative and tonic effects on the body. It can help to soothe gastric irritability. It has also been used for jaundice and fevers. Folk remedies use all parts of the fruit, including the peel and juice. The juice provides the same immune building properties as orange and papaya juice. When sipped, the juice can relieve bronchitis and a sore throat. It's also used to aide in the recovery of tuberculosis by dissolving mucus.


·         Pineapple contains bromelain, which has anti-inflammatory benefits for the body. According to a study published in Volume 58, Issue 9 of "Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences," bromelain can help with sinusitis, bronchitis and trauma from surgery. Bromelain also enhances the absorption of antibiotics. In the study, bromelain was given to subjects with mammary tumors to complement their tumor therapy. The growth of tumor cells was inhibited. Bromelain was also found to speed wound healing.


·         Pineapple contains a high amount of thiamin and manganese. Thiamin helps to prevent depression by maintaining a healthy nervous system. Manganese is an important mineral that is used in the production of energy. There is also a high amount of vitamin C in pineapple. Vitamin C is beneficial for the prevention of many diseases because it acts as an antioxidant. The Vitamin B6 in pineapple helps to control hormone levels and to nourish the nervous system to prevent emotional disorders.


·         Although the pineapple is delicious and sought after for its unique sweetness, the juice of the unripe fruit can be dangerous. If large quantities are consumed, vomiting, skin rash and diarrhea can occur. If the pineapple juice is consumed by pregnant women, it should be in small quantities. Pineapple can cause a uterine contraction that might cause an accidental abortion.





Fruit plays an integral part of a healthy and balanced diabetes diet, and you can include pineapple in your menu. Keep in mind, however, that pineapple scores higher on the glycemic index than most other varieties of fruit. This means that eating pineapple may cause an undesirable increase in your blood glucose levels.

Nutrition Facts
Eating pineapple may produce a negative effect on your blood glucose levels. This is because pineapple is higher in sugar than other fruits. A 1/2 cup of raw pineapple chunks contains 9.28 g total carbohydrate, most of it from sugar. Out of the 9.28 g total carbohydrate, 8.13 g come from sugar and 1.15 g come from fiber. In contrast, raspberries contain 6.72 g total carbohydrate in a 1/2 cup serving.They provide one-third the amount of sugar -- 2.72 g -- and more than three times as much fiber -- 4 g -- as pineapple. The total carbohydrate in pineapple or any other carbohydrate includes its sugar, starch and fiber content. Pineapple does not contain starch.

Carbohydrates and Fruit

According to the American Diabetes Association, you should consume between 45 g and 60 g carbohydrate per meal. A healthy diabetes meal plan involves eating one serving of fruit with every meal, where a serving is equal to one small piece of whole fruit or a 1/2 cup serving. You can safely incorporate pineapple into your diet, but keep track of your carbohydrate intake. Following the carbohydrate intake guidelines may help keep your blood glucose levels healthy and stable.

Blood Glucose
Most fruits have a low glycemic index, meaning they are unlikely to have a harmful impact on your blood glucose levels, so long as you adhere to serving size recommendations. However, pineapple -- along with melons and some varieties of dried fruit -- has a medium glycemic index. Pineapple has an unusually elevated glycemic index in part because it contains a very small amount of fiber. Fruits that are rich in fiber -- such as berries, apples and pears -- tend to have low glycemic indexes.

Fiber is an essential nutrient. According to the American Heart Association, maintaining a diet that includes adequate amounts of fiber may help lower your blood glucose levels, as well as help promote healthy cardiovascular and gastrointestinal systems. Aim to include 25 g to 30 g fiber in your daily meal plan. As a general rule fruits with edible seeds or skins contain greater amounts of fiber than those that do not. Pineapple's seeds and skin are not edible.


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