Wednesday 28 March 2012


Environmental disruption is the deterioration of the environment through depletion of resources such as air, water and soil; the destruction of ecosystems and the extinction of wildlife. It is defined as any change or disturbance to the environment perceived to be deleterious or undesirable.
Environmental disruption is of many types. When natural habitats are destroyed or natural resources are depleted, environment is degraded.
Considering land pollution as an environmental disruption, in description, Land pollution is another of the main types of pollution to the environment. Land pollution is mainly about the contamination and degradation of Earth’s land surfaces.
It occurs when waste from various sources domestic waste, industrial waste, etc. are not properly disposed of, causing harmful substances and chemicals to leach into the ground. Read about various type of pollution on land.
In the landfills, non-biodegradable materials like plastic bottles, Styrofoam and cans can remain buried and intact for thousands of years, leaching chemicals into the ground over the years. Electronic products that contain heavy metals like lead and mercury also leach poisonous toxins into the ground. These chemicals and heavy metals sometimes reach the underground water system and pollute our water bodies. Read about land pollution facts.
That is why it is important to recycle, rather than just sending all your unwanted items to the garbage bin.
Environmentally unfriendly mineral exploitation practices and the misuse of soil by harmful agricultural practices can also lead to land pollution. Read about how such practices are cause of land pollution. Also, read more about soil pollution and soil pollution facts.

Land pollution can affect wildlife, plants and humans in many ways. Land pollution can exterminate wildlife and disrupt the balance in nature. The chemicals found in polluted land (eg. landfills, land where chemical pesticides are heavily applied) could be absorbed by plants, and be transferred to animals and humans who eat the plants. In turn, the chemicals could cause various health problems like respiratory problems, birth defects, skin diseases and even cancer in the animals and humans. Read about the dangers of pesticides.
Land Pollution can be prevented by the proper disposing of the litter. What is even better at reducing land pollution, or the various types of pollution, is to reduce your trash. Reducing consumption, reusing old items for new purposes or recycling are some ways to reduce our waste.
Also, environmentally friendly agricultural practices such as the use of organic fertilizers and organic pesticides, instead of conventional chemical based ones, could also help to reduce the amount of toxic chemicals introduced into the land. Read more about how to stop land pollution.

Recycle Waste
An alternative to reusing is recycling. Recycling allows the reprocessing of waste products usually plastics, papers and metals-in order to produce a new material. This solution provides one of the most useful techniques to lessen the amount of waste that ends up in the environment. Once products go through the recycling process, they can then be resold and reused, not only preventing waste, but lessening the strain on product creation. As a result, problems such as deforestation are less severe.

Reduce Usage

Reducing the amount of resources that you are using will also help prevent land pollution. Simply conserve the resources you use. You can apply this philosophy to your life by reducing your energy usage and even eating out less, which produces fewer cartons, packages and wrappings in the trash. Taking a proactive role in reducing waste consumption can lead to significant results in helping the environment.

Respect the Environment
This might be the simplest of all solutions, but a little sense of respect to the environment and its natural resources is enough to provide help. Avoid littering wherever you are, pick up litter if you see it, and practice environmentally safe day to day habits.

Air quality is defined as a measure of the condition of air relative to the requirements of one or more biotic species or to any human need or purpose. Air quality indices (AQI) are numbers used by government agencies to characterize the quality of the air at a given location. As the AQI increases, an increasingly large percentage of the population is likely to experience increasingly severe adverse health effects. To compute the AQI requires an air pollutant concentration from a monitor or model.
The use of an air cleaner is a good first step to take in improving indoor air quality since the job of an air cleaner is to remove particles from the air. Also important are good cleaning practices such as dusting and vacuuming often.
Utilize either dilution ventilation or local exhaust ventilation in conjunction with isolation techniques to reduce contaminant levels. Dilution ventilation increases the amount of outside air passing through an area to dilute and flush out low levels of contaminants. If the building ventilation system will be in contact with the work area, consider installing additional filters to keep particulates out of the ductwork. Change all filters at the conclusion of the project. When strong odors and higher contaminant levels are expected, the area should be encapsulated and placed under negative pressure. This technique isolates the work area from the building ventilation system and uses exhaust fans to directly remove contaminants to the outside. Explosion proof fans must be used while there are flammable chemicals being used in the work area. Positively pressurizing non-work areas and running ventilation systems overnight will minimize contaminant migration into occupied spaces.
Good housekeeping practices will go a long way toward containing dusts and construction debris, and allowing building occupants to feel confident that the project is well managed. Consider using a HEPA filtered vacuum cleaner to minimize recirculation of contaminants. Suppress dust with wet methods. Quickly clean up spilled materials. Protect porous materials such as insulation from exposure to moisture and contaminants.

Saturday 24 March 2012



Education is one of the factors that will help an economy to develop. There are several economies in the world that have developed because of the improvement in the education facilities that are available. One of the most important factors that has played a role in the improvement of education is the availability of internet. Remote learning, online learning are some of the common terms that are used these days. This is because the reach of education has increased considerably and education is able to reach almost all the nooks and corners of the world. There are several sites that are promoting online education. There are many nongovernmental organizations that are helping to fund the education initiative so that it will help to reach more parts of the world.
There are several advantages of this method of learning though the internet. The most common advantage is that there is a very less cost that will be incurred in education of many people. In classroom teaching, there is a lot of infrastructure that is required. Other than the infrastructure, the payment of salary for the teachers and various other recurring expenses are present.
The use of internet, where a particular module that has been used for teaching is used again and again with minor updates has made it very cost effective. This is just one of the advantages of using internet in education.
Interactive sessions are also possible through the internet. The remote learning has a teacher in one part of the world and students from various other parts of the world learning at the same time. The students can ask questions to the teacher and the teacher can answer it all on the internet. This interaction clears the questions and doubts that a student may have making the learning session more meaningful.

The Internet offers a world of information in one place. It is a helpful tool in communicating and researching all different subjects. It is also a great way for students to use computers with proper supervision. Yet using the Internet in an educational system can be controversial. Some of the disadvantages include students giving out too much information about them, sites too commercialized with little educational value, and access to material that parents might not want their children exposed to. However, teachers and students have seen many benefits including:


The Internet helps students develop their computer skills. It can also help students with their writing skills. In some forms, the Internet can help students with critical thinking skills. Students are faced with more information than they could ever use or need. This requires them to sort through the information and decide what is most important and relevant.
With e-mail, students can have contact with other students around the world studying the same things they are.
Sometimes, encyclopedia may not always be available to students and they may have difficulty in gaining access to the books in the library. In that case, the encyclopedia of different subjects available on the Internet can be helpful. This is more useful for students who belong to communities not having English as their mother tongue. Kids and younger children can also be benefited by the Internet by using the pictures, videos, etc. which is one of the major advantages, when comparing of textbooks versus computer teaching.

School Projects and Homework

The Internet can be a huge source for children trying to look up information for a school project or do homework. It also eliminates barriers for handicapped students who may have trouble getting to a library. It allows all students to have access to information whether or not their family has a set of encyclopedias.


The Internet allows students to read the latest news of a certain subject they are studying. If they are studying American politics they can do a news search and find out what is happening in the world of politics at that very moment. This can help them connect what they are learning to the real world. It can also keep them interested in a subject. Students may have longer attention spans with technology than with other forms of traditional learning.

Student's Future

Students will have to use the computer for research in college, in their jobs and their everyday lives. The Internet is a way of life for almost everyone now. Using it in a classroom is one of the best and safest ways to help them learn about this tool.

The Internet is an important learning tool as well as being a great way to keep in contact with friends and family. We are living in a world where computers and technology are important. Almost every job has some type of computer or technology requirement. So it makes a lot of sense that all kids need to learn how to use a computer and the Internet.
When you use the Internet, you are learning important education skills. You are learning to work well on your own and improving your own research skills. The Internet allows you to access a wider range of information and also helps you to work with others over the Internet.
Everyday use of the internet develops your ability to access information and learning resources as well as learning to make your own information and learning resources. When you send and receive emails you are learning an important communication method as well as learning many others like Instant Messaging and Blogs.
As you use your computer and the Internet you are developing important skills that will be essential in your future study or work.
Benefits for Teachers
The Internet is an extra bonus for teachers looking for more information on topics. It enables them to communicate effectively with parents and other teachers via email. Teachers can have their own class pages that parents can check at their convenience to see what happens in the classroom.

There is so much that students can do with the Internet. Not only can they communicate with international students, they can gain from others' knowledge and experiences, participate in chatrooms, share ideas and solutions and learn about the many diverse cultures out there.
While the Internet does a lot for students, there are also benefits for parents and teachers. The interactive learning that the Internet provides can help students and parents with little or no English skills to learn English. Parents can become more involved in their children's education by connecting the school with homes, libraries or other access ports.
Teachers can adjust to the different learning styles and in the classroom. They can also set their own pace of teaching. Individual teaching techniques can become more available, which has been proven to be a factor in student achievement. Teachers have the chance to be able to teach at more than one place simultaneously. They may be in a small town but through the Internet, they can be linked to students in more populated areas. Also, the Internet enables administrators and teachers to spend less time on administration and recordkeeping. This would also give them more time to spend with their students.

Hafner, Katie (1998). Where Wizards Stay Up Late: The Origins Of The Internet. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-68-483267-4. 


Politics is a process by which groups of people make collective decisions. The term is generally applied to the art or science of running governmental or state affairs, including behavior within civil governments, but also applies to institutions, fields, and special interest groups such as the corporate, academic, and religious segments of society. It consists of "social relations involving authority or power" and refers to the regulation of public affairs within a political unit, and to the methods and tactics used to formulate and apply policy.
Law is a system of rules and guidelines which are enforced through social institutions to govern behavior, wherever possible. It shapes politics, economics and society in numerous ways and serves as a social mediator of relations between people. Contract law regulates everything from buying a bus ticket to trading on derivatives markets. Property law defines rights and obligations related to the transfer and title of personal and real property. Trust law applies to assets held for investment and financial security, while tort law allows claims for compensation if a person's rights or property are harmed. If the harm is criminalised in legislation, criminal law offers means by which the state can prosecute the perpetrator. Constitutional law provides a framework for the creation of law, the protection of human rights and the election of political representatives. Administrative law is used to review the decisions of government agencies, while international law governs affairs between sovereign states in activities ranging from trade to environmental regulation or military action. Writing in 350 BC, the Greek philosopher Aristotle declared, "The rule of law is better than the rule of any individual.
Legal systems elaborate rights and responsibilities in a variety of ways. A general distinction can be made between civil law jurisdictions, which codify their laws, and common law systems, where judge-made law is not consolidated. In some countries, religion informs the law. Law provides a rich source of scholarly inquiry, into legal history, philosophy, economic analysis or sociology. Law also raises important and complex issues concerning equality, fairness and justice.
Transformation as a process of transmutation from one state to another can apply to an individual or an organisation or the product or service supplied by the organisation.

With the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the communist model of development, a new international political economic order (NIPEO) inspired by free-enterprise, directed by the private sector and guided by good governance and democracy had manifested itself. It is creating new centres of economic powers and political influence impacting on Africa and the African peoples, making additional demands on the mineral and other resources of the continent, and draining Africa of its valuable human resources, as professional and skilled Africans migrate to other countries in search of better employment or security. It is also a world based on information and knowledge, science and technology, communication and transportation-[ICT]-increasingly open societies, with governance systems that are incrementally becoming more accountable to the people and responsive to their needs and aspirations.
Africa has also undergone tremendous socio-economic and political changes. In the course of the last three decades there has been tremendous transformation in the governance systems of the African countries. Indeed, the decade of the 1990s was a unique period in modern African history. It brought into focus the interfacing of the aspirations and visions of various groups of people, and the frustrations and disappointments of unfulfilled promises of many other people. It witnessed the appearance of a new generation of young citizenry most of who were born after.

The constitutions that ushered in Independence in the 1960s are regarded as ‘social contracts’ between the first generation of African leaders and their colonial masters. Now, in this 21st Century with all its challenges and opportunities a new ‘social contract’ between the people and the state is demanded. A ‘social contract’ that has to take into account the lessons and experiences of the past, the possibilities of the present, the challenges and opportunities the future might offer the global opportunities and possibilities.
The 21st Century African citizen has many needs and aspirations. These range from the basic needs of preserving and sustaining life, peace, security and stability, to the aspirations of improving the quality of life; from basic freedoms and human rights and the rights to participate in the decision-making processes that affect one’s living and livelihood to a sense of well-being and self-esteem. The satisfaction of these needs and aspiration obviously involve all the domains and levels of governance executive, legislature, judiciary, village, district and city councils, as well as the other agencies in the civil society and private sectors and require the mobilization of human and material resources. They also need the appropriate capacities in order to perform their respective functions efficiently and effectively.
Africa is thus faced with two challenges domestic and global. The domestic challenge involves economic growth, promotion of human development and the consolidation of the virtuous circle of good governance; and the global challenges entail the acquisition of global competitiveness, and the achievement of the ‘emergent continent’ status by 2025.
The achievement of these objectives will necessarily entail the mobilization of human and material resources; utilization of science and technology, mechanism and techniques; information and knowledge, expertise and experience; appropriate productive and organizational principles and procedures; rethinking the past and re-inventing the future. However, these activities can take place only in an environment of peace, security and stability; predictability of the public regulatory framework, where people would be free and willing to embark on various creative and productive activities of their choices, creating goods and services, wealth and employment; confident that they would be able to enjoy the fruit of their labour and enterprise and pass it on to their succeeding generations. The creation of such an environment is a major governance and capacity issue.

The following are the key roles of politics in the transformation of Africa:

1.   Politics empowers the people. In a democracy it is the people who decide the form and composition of government. It is also the people who ultimately acquiesce to bad governance or insist on good governance. But in order for them to do the latter or resist the former, people need to be empowered with the appropriate knowledge, information and other means of asserting their right to expect accountability and transparency of government and its agencies
2.   Politics manages diversities; societal diversities are the enduring realities in Africa. The first generation of African political and military leaders detested the societal diversities and feared their impact on nation building. In the name of unity, nation-building and development diversities were ‘wished away’ and in some cases ‘abolished’ or severely controlled. They were regarded as essentially divisive and obstacles to the unity of post-colonial Africa; and the traditional governance institutions as anachronistic and thus unable to cope with the exigencies of the modern state, the challenges of nation building and economic development. The struggles for diversities are essentially those of political democracy people asserting their identity, and recognition of their cultural rights and traditions. Denial of these rights has been a major cause of violent conflicts in Africa.
These diversities do, moreover, enrich life, and constitute a huge reservoir of talents, traditions, skills, enterprise and experience, that if appropriately managed could be converted into creative and productive forces, as well as building blocks for new societies and governance systems, thus contributing to the uniqueness of the Emergent Africa in the 21st century!!
                3. Politics mobilizes human and material resources. Effective
                responses to the domestic and global challenges would necessarily
                require the mobilization of human and material resources. Africa’s
                greatest assets are the people. They need to be liberated, mobilized  
                and empowered: allowed to exercise their individual freedoms;
                provided with the opportunities to be educated, to learn new skills,
                acquire the necessary information and knowledge; and to engage
                themselves in creative or productive activities of their choice in
                pursuit of their interests. Moreover, to stop the brain drain, and relieve
                the drained brains.

4.    Politics promotes and sustains an open society. In the past governments and large business organizations kept a very tight lid on the information and knowledge for different reasons: the business organization in order to be productive and competitive than their rivals; and the governments purportedly for national security. Information and knowledge was shared among the selected few. The governments kept most of their people in the dark. And the top management left most of their employees ignorant of what was taking place in the organization. In this age of information and knowledge based governance systems and economies to be productive and competitive organizations must have well-informed and knowledgeable work force; and for governments to be efficient and effective in the delivery of services and generally maintaining good governance they, too, have to share information and knowledge with the citizens. Information and knowledge societies concentrate on the utilization of the human capital, continuously expanding the information and knowledge and imparting them on the individual or the group. It is the empowering of the individual to do his/her best at whatever level that distinguishes the information and knowledge societies and economies from the previous economies.

There are inter alia two significant factors that have contributed to the radical transformation of South Africa's role in the field of international criminal justice in the decade between 1994 and 2004. First, the re-emergence of South Africa as a respected member of the body of nation states, and secondly the increase in the mobility of humans together with the increase of crime with a transnational element and more particularly, international terrorism. Traditionally all crime was regarded as local in character. This approach is no longer recognised as reflecting reality in an ever increasingly interdependent and globalising world.
In the context of extradition Justice Goldstone for the Constitutional Court stated:
The need for extradition has increased because of the ever-growing frequency with which criminals take advantage of modern technology, both to perpetrate serious crime and to evade arrest by fleeing to other lands.
This comment must be considered in the light of the fact that extraditing a person constitutes an invasion of fundamental human rights. This also applies to the execution of searches and seizures and the issuing of subpoenae, which have also been held to constitute an invasion of rights. The tension in domestic systems between the law and order approach and human rights protection is mirrored on the international plane.
Apartheid and isolation
Prior to 1994, many states declined to interact with South Africa in general and more specifically in the investigation and prosecution of crime. States, which had extradition arrangements with South Africa, cancelled them during apartheid and few states were willing to enter into new extradition agreements with South Africa. This changed in 1994 and the past decade has seen many States enter into new arrangements for extradition with South Africa. This development accelerated in May 2003 when South Africa acceded to the European Convention on Extradition, and thus became party to extradition agreements with a further fifty states.
Transborder movement globally of human beings has increased dramatically over the past decade. Also, South Africa has become a desirable state for fugitives to hide in.
The executive branch has actively assisted foreign states with the investigation and prosecution of crime. South Africa has received many more requests for assistance in criminal matters and extradition than in previous years. It has extradited and attempted to extradite many more persons in the past decade than in previous decades. Indeed, governments, and the South African government is no exception, do not wish their own countries to be, or be perceived as safe havens for the criminals of the world. The fact that a foreign State requesting a fugitive in South Africa was not a party to an extradition agreement with South Africa was not a legal bar to South Africa surrendering the fugitive. The Extradition Act permitted – and permits - the surrender in extradition of persons to foreign states not a party to an extradition agreement with South Africa if the President consents on an ad hoc basis to the extradition.
Having emerged from political isolation South Africa has negotiated and entered into a number of extradition agreements in recent years and on 12 February 2003 acceded to the European Convention on Extradition and in doing so became party to a further fifty states.


The developments in the first decade of South Africa's democracy in the field of international co-operation in criminal matters will be dwarfed by the developments in the next decades. The commendable desire to assist foreign States by way of extradition or otherwise must not allow for lawlessness on the part of the executive. A challenge for the Courts will be to insist on lawful conduct and protect human rights without hindering legitimate attempts by the executive at the prevention and prosecution of international crime.

Albert Venn, Dicey (2005). "Parliamentary Sovereignty and Federalism".
Introduction to the Study of the Law of the Constitution. Adamant Media Corporation. ISBN 1-4021-8555-3.
Albrow, Martin (1970). Bureaucracy (Key Concepts in Political Science).
London: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 0-333-11262-8. 
Anderson, J.N.D. (January 1956). "Law Reform in the Middle East".
International Affairs (Royal Institute of International Affairs 1944—) 32 (1): 43–51. doi:10.2307/2607811
Blattberg, Charles, "Political Philosophies and Political Ideologies," in
Patriotic Elaborations: Essays in Practical Philosophy, Montreal and Kingston: McGill-Queen's University Press, 2009.
Fabri, Marco. The challenge of change for judicial systems, page 137 (IOS
Press 2000): “the judicial system is intended to be apolitical, its symbol being that of a blindfolded Lady Justice holding balanced scales.”
Haggard, Presidents, Parliaments and Policy, 71