Tuesday, 26 June 2012

PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS OF WASTE DISPOSAL IN PORT-HARCOURT METROPOLIS


TABLE OF CONTENTS
CERTIFICATION…………………………………………………….…i
DEDICATION…………………………………………………………..ii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT……………………………………….……..iii
TABLE OF CONTENTS……………………………………………….V
LIST OF TABLES…………………………………………………….Vii
ABSTRACT…………………………………………………………….ix
CHAPTER ONE
1.1      BACKGROUND OF STUDY ……………………….….……..…1
1.2      STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEM…………………..…3
1.3      SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY……………………..…..…….6
1.4      OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY……………………………………7
1.5      HYPOTHESES……………………………………………………7
1.6      STUDY AREA ………………………………………….………...8
1.7      LOCATION………………………………………………….. ….10
1.8      HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF PORT-HARCOURT…..… 11
1.9      POPULATION   …………………………..………………….….12
1.10   CLIMATE……………………………………………………...   13
1.11    TRANSPORTATION………………………………………...     14
1.12   SOCIO-ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES OF THE PEOPLE……….   15
CHAPTER TWO
2.1      THEREFORE FRAMEWORK………………………………….17
2.2      LITERATURE REVIEW……………………………………… 21
CHAPTER THREE  
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1      TYPE OF DATA…………………………………………………37
3.2      SOURCE OF DATA……………………………………………. .37
3.3      METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION…………………………...38
3.4      METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS………………………………39
3.5      POPULATION OF THE STUDY………………………………..41
3.6      SAMPLING TECHNIQUES………………………………….....41
CHAPTER FOUR:   
DATA PRESENTATION AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS
4.1            DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS…………………...43
4.2            HYPOTHESIS……………………………….…………………..59
4.3            DECISION RULE…………………………...…………………...62
4.4            DISCUSSION OF FINDING…………………...………………..64
CHAPTER FIVE
SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1      SUMMARY…………………………..………………..………...66
5.2      RECOMMENDATION……………………………………….....67
5.3      CONCLUSION……………………………………..……………69

REFERENCES
PLATES
APPENDIXES           






LIST OF TABLES
Table 1.1:   population growth of port-Harcourt city (1921-20008).
Table 4.1:   Category of solid waste generated in the study area.
Table 4.2:    People who have waste dump (silo bin )
Table 4.3:    Size of waste collected in streets of the study area.
Table 4.4:   How Often Waste is Disposed from their homes daily.
Table 4.5:    Number of waste bins found in that location
Table 4.6:    Approximate Dumping of Waste in the Waste Bins
Table 4.7:     Factors Leading to Inappropriate Disposal of Waste
Table 4.8:     Amount of Money Spent on Waste Evacuation
Table 4.9:     Health Problems as a Result of Indiscriminate Waste
Dump
Table 4.10:   Number of Times Health Problems is being treated.
Table 4.11:   Amount of Money Spent on Medical Bills When Treating
Health Problems.
Table 4.12:   Recommendations to Improve Waste Management.

PLATES
Plate 1:  indiscriminate waste disposal in a drainage channel in Diobu
Plate 2: Over flow of waste bin in Borikiri












 ABSTRACT
This research work was carried out on the problems and prospects of waste disposal in port-Harcourt metropolis, aimed at providing solution to problems of solid waste disposal in port-Harcourt metropolis. The major objectives of the study are; to determine the quality of waste generated in the study area, to assess the impact of indiscriminate waste dump on the socio-economic lives of the respondents, to suggest possible management methods to the observed problem.      The data for this study was collected through primary and secondary sources. The primary data source includes; field work, questionnaire, and personal observation. Whereas, the secondary data source include textbooks, research project, formal articles and electronic media. The data obtained in the field with the aid of questionnaire administration on problems and prospects of waste disposal in port-Harcourt metropolis was subjected to analysis and presentation. This study discovered that ignorance, inadequate waste management facility, along with other factors such as attitudes of residents dumping waste indiscriminately (into gutters, roadsides) and in nearby bushes were key factors hindering progress towards efficient waste management in port-Harcourt metropolis. However, environmental education/awareness was highly recommended by the people of Port-Harcourt metropolis as a prospective way of reducing the problems of waste disposal/management in their vicinity.


CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1       Background of the Study
One of the greatest environmental problems that pose a grave challenge to the residents of port-Harcourt is waste disposal. Today, solid waste disposal constitutes a major urban environmental paralysis; a clog in the wheel of progress in terms of urban environmental purity and sanitation (Slue, 2009).
The deterioration of the urban environment in terms of irresponsibly dumped and accumulated solid wastes is most apparent in our urban lives and blighted environments have often been cited and voted as contributing causes of the Nigerian urban decay (Asuquo 1979). In Port Harcourt metropolis, waste problem has gained notoriety because of its visibility and general degradation of the environment. In Borikiri area of Port Harcourt, it is common site to find mounds of waste in many places, besides those wastes that are scattered in gutters, street corners, and road sides.
Waste may be defined as any substance be it solid, liquid or gaseous, that remains a residue or an incidental by- product of the processing of the substance and for which no use can be found by the organism or system that produces it (Allaby, 1998). In other words, wastes are substances or objects discarded as worthless or unwanted, defective and of no further value to the user and should be disposed (Ekpoh, 2009).
Waste is an unavoidable consequence of the need for survival. In order to live, we eat, drink and provide other necessities of life. In the process of trying to satisfy these needs, we create waste. It is a fact that the amount of waste generated by individual has relationships with per capital consumption.
In the light of the above, this study seeks to examine the problems and prospects of waste disposal on Port- Harcourt metropolis.



1.2    Statement of Research Problem
It is a well established fact that man’s survival on planet earth absolutely depends on the environment. Therefore, unhealthy environment leads to unhealthy human existence. According to NEST (1991) one of the problems facing Nigerian Urban centers is the issue of waste management. In recent times, there has been a phenomenal increase in the volume of solid waste generation daily (over 3,000 tonnes of solid waste) in the country, due largely to the increasing rate of population, urbanization, industrialization and general economic growth. (Www.ceidenuniv.academia.edu).
In many cities including Port Harcourt, the volume of solid waste generated (A total of 207.3 tonnes, 1.45kg of waste per capita daily), has overwhelmed the urban administrators capacity to plan for their collection and disposal. Thus, it is very common to find waste being littered on streets, scattered in gutters and roadsides.
This practice has resulted in flooding of the streets and health related issue as the refuse is left to decay without being evacuated. The provision of waste disposal bin by the Port-Harcourt urban development Authority (PUDA) is really inadequate and the removal of waste from the bin is ineffective because of lack of sufficient evacuation trucks and man-power.
People’s attitude towards the environment is also of concern. People must be oriented to know the effects of indiscriminate disposal of waste. The need for people to properly dispose their waste and always try to keep their environments clean. This is why Odum (1975) asserted that in order to effectively and efficiently handle waste management operations, every citizen should be made to understand that basic ecological principles must be applied if man is to achieve and maintain a symbiotic relationship with nature. A total of 207.3 tonnes of solid waste was generated in Port Harcourt metropolis in 2010 (www.emeraldinsight.com/journals). Giving a per capita annual waste generation rate of 0.53 tonnes equivalent to waste generator rate of 1.45kg of waste per capita daily. Cartons accounted for 16.1 percent paper and food remnant had 14.4 percent and 26.6 percentage of total waste (Ogbonna et.al 2011).
Other forms of waste such as industrial and agricultural waste products data are hard to come by. Automobile effluent is a big worry in the metropolis because of the vehicles are not environmentally friendly as they emit poisonous gases such as carbon monoxide, sulphur, nitrate, etc. which are detrimental to human health.
Because of lack of appropriate data management, accurate figure of persons who have suffered from health issues that can be traced to improper waste disposal cannot be obtained from government Hospitals in the area. But issues such as malaria, cholera, typhoid, diarrhoea cannot be disassociated with decomposed waste matter. Waste could be seen around different spots in the metropolis. The 2011 budget by the Rivers State Government allocated 2.9 billion naira to the ministry of environment. (www.riverstate.gov.ng). which is directly responsible for supervising the Rivers State Environmental Agency which is vested with the responsibility of waste management.

1.3    Significance of the Study
The purpose of this research is to study and reveal the negative impacts of the problems of waste disposal in Port- Harcourt metropolis, and to suggest lasting and sustainable solutions to the problems by making recommendations that will help control the situation if adhered to. This study will be important to the government to assist in the tackling of waste problems in the study area, and also useful to upcoming researcher as it will serve as a source for future study.
Finally, this study would bring ultimate benefit to improve the morals of citizens for effective participation in environmental policies and programmes. This is because when the morale of people is improved, it is equally expected that their participation in such environmental activities is improved tremendously, reflecting in their overall environmental consciousness



1.4     Objectives of the Study
The major aim of this study is to evaluate the problems and prospects of waste disposal in Port- Harcourt metropolis. In order to achieve this aim, the following specific objectives would be considered;
1.   To determine the quantity of waste generated in the study area.
2.   To asses the attitude of people towards waste management.
3.   To assess the impact of indiscriminate waste dump on the socio- economic lives respondents.
4.   To find out past and present measures (if any) to chech mate the menace of indiscriminate waste dump in Port-Harcourt metropolis.
5.   To suggest possible methods to the observed problems.

1.5    Hypotheses
In accordance with the research objectives, the following hypotheses are formulated for testing in this study;
(1)
Ho:    There is no significant relationship between the volume of waste generated and the health condition of the respondents.
Hi:     There is a significant relationship between the volume of waste generated and the health condition of the respondents.

                                                (2)
Ho:    There is no significant relationship between inadequate   waste bins (silo bin) and indiscriminate disposal of waste.
Hi:     There is a significant relationship between inadequate waste bins (silo bin) and indiscriminate disposal of waste.

1.6    Study Area
The study area is Port Harcourt. Port Harcourt is one of the 23 local Governments Areas and the capital city of Rivers State, Nigeria. Some of Port Harcourt’s most popular and well known residential areas are Diobu, Borikirir, G.R.A phase 1-5, Port Harcourt township (Town), Amadi flats, Ogbunabali, Rumuola, Rumuokwurishi, etc. Port Harcourt city is highly congested because it is the only major city in the state.
Imbedded within the city is the Rivers State University of Port Harcourt (UNIPORT) which is located in Obio/Akpor, which was carved out of Port-Harcourt L.G.A for the purpose of administrating alleviation. The growth of Port-Harcourt and its region has been outstanding since its inception in terms of population and space.
The main industrial area is located in Trans-Amadi. The main city of Port Harcourt is the Port- Harcourt city Local Government area, which consists of the former European Quarters now called Old Government Reservation area (GRA) and new layout areas. The Port- Harcourt metropolis is made up of the city itself and parts of Obio/ Akpor Local Government area. Based on the number of its inhabitants, Port Harcourt is ranked the fifth largest city in Nigeria.
Historically, the Ikwere and Okrika villages occupied the surrounding area of Port Harcourt city before 1913. Then, their major socio- economic occupation was mainly farming and fishing. At present, urban growth has ushered in several socio economic activities into the city such as trading (import/ export), exploration and oil production, as well as craftsmanship and tourism, etc.
The city of Port Harcourt is now synonymous for commerce, industry, mines and agriculture. The population of Port Harcourt city (within its municipal boundaries0 has risen from 7,000 residents in 1921 to more than 800,000 in 2006 (census 2006). The population of Port Harcourt is 1148665 according to the Geonames geographical Database.

1.7    Location
Port Harcourt city lies along the Bonny River which is located in the Niger Delta and its co-ordinates. Longitude 7 50’E 8 00’E and latitude 4 45’00 n, 4 75’N. Being the capital of Rivers State, it is situated at the southern tip of Nigeria, a littoral state covering 10,379sq kilometers and bordering the Atlantic Ocean.
Port Harcourt lies at the heart of the Niger Delta, one of the world’s riches wetlands. It is bounded on the south by the Atlantic Ocean, to the north by Anambra, Imo and Abia state, to the east by Akwa Ibom state and to the west by Bayelsa and Delta States.

1.8     Historical Background of Port-Harcourt
Port-Harcourt was founded in 1912 by the British in an area traditionally inhabited mostly by the Ikwerre people, and Igbo subgroup. It was named after Lewis Vernon Harcourt, secretary of the state of the colonies. The initial purpose of the port was to export the coal which geologist Albert Ernest Kitson had discovered in Enugu. In August 1913, the Governor-General of Nigeria, Sir Fredrick Lugard wrote the Harcourt, the secretary of state for to colonies saying “In absence of any convenient Local name, I would respectfully ask your permission to call this port, Harcourt. In sight of this development, the secretary of the state responds. “It gives me pleasure to accede to your suggestion that my name by associated with the new port.”
Historically, the surrounding areas of port-Harcourt city were inhabited by the indigenous Ikwerre and Okrika village people before, 1913. Then, the natives were rural and their major socio-economic occupation was farming and fishing. Considering that the population was only 5,000 at the inception of the city, the pressure on land was perhaps minimal (okoye 1975).

1.9    Population
The population of port-Harcourt city (within its municipal boundaries) has risen from 7,000 residents in 1921, to more than 800,000 in 2006 (census, 2006). The population growth rate is estimated at 3.05% in 1996. The population of port-Harcourt is estimated at 1,620,214 (2007) with the port-Harcourt urban area at 2.7 million in population. The current population of port-Harcourt, Nigeria is 1148665 according to the Geonames geographical database.


Population Growth Of Port-Harcourt City (1921-2008)
YEAR
POPULATION
PERCENTAGE (%)
1921
7185
0.0
1931
15020
10.9
1953
71634
17.1
1963
179563
15.1
1973
213443
1.9
1991
703416
121.8
2006
835332
1.3
 Source: National Population Commission (2006), Izeogu (1989).

1.10            Climate
Port-Harcourt features a tropical heavy rainfall climate with lengthy and heavy rainfall seasons, and very short dry season. Infact, it is assumed that, only the months of December and January are truly qualified as dry season months in the city. Precipitation is at its highest in the month of September where on an average approximately 370mm of rain is observed. While the month of December see an average in its driest month of the year where 20mm of rain on average is seen.
The harmattan, which climatically influences many cities in West Africa, is less pronounced, and temperatures throughout the year in the city are relatively constant showing little variation throughout the course of the year. Average temperature is typically between c-c in the city

1.11 Transportation
Port-Harcourt city is accessible through Local, regional, national and international means. There are adequate transportation means via road network and inland water ways, bringing people in and out of the city. Available mediums are air and sea transportation. With the aid of international airport and two seaports that enhances the importation and exportation of goods and services.

1.12 Socio-economic Activities of the People
Historically, the Ikwerre and Okrika villages occupied the surrounding area of port-Harcourt city before 1913. Then, their major socio-economic occupation was mainly farming and fishing. At present, urban growth has ushered in several socio-economic activities into the city, such as trading (import/export), transportation (land, water and air), exploration and oil production, as well as, craftsmanship and tourism, ect. The city of port-Harcourt is now synonymous for commerce, industry, mines and agriculture.
Port-Harcourt is the heart of Nigeria’s oil industry with virtually all major multi-national oil companies being represented there until recently owing to security threats from Nigeria Delta militants and cultists. The economic activities of port-Harcourt include, manufacturing such as food producing, car assembly, manufacture of paper products, paints, petroleum products, refinery and road construction, metal works and cement making, enamelware, bicycles, furniture, and shop making. Services include legal services, hospitality, medical, educational and engineering services, extractive industries, also exist such as mining of coal, tin and petroleum, oil and gas liquefaction.
Also agricultural and agro based businesses exist in the city. Some of which are logging and timber processing, tobacco processing and cigarette making, plastic moulding and the manufacturing of rubber based products like tyres, bands, tube and glassmaking. Imports are mainly automobile, electronics, textiles and processed food. Sometimes rice, millet, meat and other agricultural produce are imported as well.
The numerous small scale enterprises like consumer retailing, artisanship and transportation businesses also thrive in the city. Various government organs such as the Nigerian ports Authority, NNPC and the customs play various regulatory roles in the Local economy.  



CHAPTER TWO
THEORETICAL  FRAMEWORK AND LITERATURE REVIEW.

2.1    Theoretical Framework
2.1.1           Population, Resource, Pollution (P.R.P) Model.
POPULATION
RESOURCE
POPULATION
Fig.1 Diagram of the p.r.p model
In the study of waste management, there are several models, and conceptual postulates. This research work shall focus on just one among these conceptual postulates such as the P.R.P (population, research, pollution) model. The idea of waste generation and problems posed by this waste in our cities is not for fetched from population explosion, resource demand and pollution. In an attempt to study waste problem, the P.R.P model was formulated which slows the relationship between population, resource and pollution .this model connects resource use with the environment population in terms of waste generated. As more people move to an urban area, either from birth or migration, population increases leading to high demand of resource to stay alive, and as such ,a negative feedback is reached with increase in the number of waste generation. the P.R.P mode says that human population acquires and uses resources from the environment and that these activities have negative impact on the environment, attiring the biotic and biotic condition.

2.1.2            Concept of Sustainable Development
 As defined by the Bruntland commission in its 1987 report “our common future” as a process of meeting the need of the present generation likewise not jeopardizing the needs of the future generation (world development report 1992) the word was first used in the world conservation strategy (IUCN1980). It stressed sustainability in ecological terms and was for less concerned with economic development.
NEST(1992) further elaborated that ,it is a process in which the exploitation of resources, direction of investment, the orientation of technological development, the development of waste and institution change are all in harmony and enhances both current and future potentials to meet human need and aspiration. This concept however proved difficult for many to operate, on the approximate point on where to draw in certain between resource use and resources protection. In essence, the vision           of sustainable development as set out in the Bruntland report is for policies which recognize the need for economic growth without base.
It is argued that sustainable development in terms of waste management at a global level could only be achieved through major changes in the ways which our urban centres are managed. Man rice coinage of term “eco development at the united nations conference on the environment may prove lucid, as starting point towards operationalizing this concept (Bisong, 1994).
The concept as elaborated by mites (1983) is set at capturing the basic characteristic of a new philosophy towards societal development. He advocates that development should be based on the recognition of the importance of the linkage between the objective of development audits various contexts. For instance, the urban center and the rule of waste generated are taken into consideration. Miles rested on the assumption that the development of one person, group, country or whatever to its own good. That development must be sustainable either from within or from its development environment. Thus, any damage done to an environment at any given time is acceptable only if there is both knowledge of how the capacities of the environment will be restored and intention to restore them. This concept highlighted above linked waste disposal and sustainable management of those wastes in our urban centre which focuses primarily on the correction or cure of waste problems in urban centres.
This is achieved through proper treatment and disposal of waste to help mitigate the effect of creating environment al unsound situation, rather than prevention with the above means.There is a compelling need for resource recovery because of the high cost of raw materials to a new direction which is waste prevention, minimization, or avoidance which is achievable by changing the present waste disposal method, so as to ensure a sustainable management of waste generated by our urban centre’s.

2.2    Literature Review
To show that this research work is not isolated, a number of literatures are reviewed. Different contributions gathered from different authors are presented below for easy reference.                        
2.2.1           Concept of Solid Waste
Waste is anything that has lost its value, and the by-product of the processed product. According to Allaby (1988) waste is any substance, be it solid, liquid, or gaseous, that remains as residue or an incidental by- product of a substance, and for which no other use can be found by the organism or system that produced it.
Gilpin (1976) also describe it as a material of solid or semi-solid character, which the processor no longer consider sufficient to retain. Odoche (1994) and Wagner (1995) said, solid wastes are materials which are generated as a result of normal operation over which we have control in term of their production disposal or discharge. He asserted that one waste here may become a feedback or raw material elsewhere. This is why there have been christened scavengers.
Sule (2001) asserted that most uncontrolled and poorly managed waste are found in fast growing capital cities of the world especially in developing countries where population is always on the increase. He also stated that the problems of the solid waste is not familiar but assume global gargantuan dimensions. In recent years leading to environmental degradation pollution and imbalance, epidemics and diseases, decline in urban quality and fiscal spending on solid waste generation and management. However, many authorities in the field of solid waste have shown that solid waste generation problem and management is not only a social behaviors, but also socio-economic and cultural factors associated with them. These include population growth, urbanization, technological advancement and improvement in the standard of living. Sule (2001) in an empirical study carried out in calabar, pointed out that during the past two decades in Nigeria, urban centre have continued to grow in terms of population and to expand in size. Despite this growth, there has been no effect until recently to control and manage the cities. He also observed that increase in population combined with impact of good salary review has led to rising level of consumption. He further stated that the consequences is increased in degradation in the generation of waste and has resulted in degradation in the city land scape and unhealthy living condition.
Obot, AnimaShaun and Fayose (2002), observed that the improper disposal of refuse and waste constitute serious environmental health problems to residents within the vicinity. The phenomenon can escalate the outbreak of different kinds of epidemics.
According to Aina (1995), the polluted ground water can affect food chain, health and human environment. She stressed that both women and children are victims of pollution and that over 40,000 children die from disease and other epidemic everyday due to poor waste disposal.
Sule (2004), confirmed that solid waste disposal constitute the major urban environmental paralysis, a clog in the wheel of progress in terms of urban environmental purity and sanitation. He talked about waste as an environmental disaster and aesthetic decay.

2.2.2 Sources of Waste
Wastes are complex on nature depending on sources of generation and the environmental status of the waste. Waste may be classified according to its origin or sources, physical form or morph metric, or according to physiochemical properties. Oyediran (1997) has identified the following sources of waste which include;
-         Domestic/municipal solid waste
-         Agricultural waste
-         Industrial waste
-         Commercial waste
-         Miscellaneous waste

          According to Udofia and Asikong (2005), waste could be bio-degradable and non biodegradable. The biodegradable wastes are those domestic wastes which include food remains, garden, paper, etc which can easily be decomposed by microbes, while  the non-biodegradable wastes are wastes that cannot easily decompose and are non combustible in nature. These include metals, glass, ceramics, stones, nails, etc.
However, of all the various sources of waste, attention in waste disposal is devoted to municipal solid waste, because it is highly visible and must therefore be collected, transported to dump sites at all cost. Wastes are complex in nature  depending on the source of generation which gives rise to a large variety of different types of waste arising from the above listed sources. These include the domestic waste, industrial waste, agricultural waste and commercial waste. Domestic wastes are waste generated from domestic activities such as cooking, garbage, most especially from homes.
Industrial wastes are by-products from industrial processes. Some of these materials are made up of hazardous material that contains a large volume of toxic substances like cyanides, pesticides lead compound, mercury, etc. They vary depending on the nature of manufacturing. Waste from plant industry often comes from mixing tanks, filling equipment, cleaning of floor. Agabi (1995) .
Agricultural wastes are waste materials that emanate from farm activities which include run. Off of pesticides. Discarded farming tools, weed from farm lands, to mention but a few. Commercial waste which come from commercial activities such as marketing place, departmental of glossary stores, offices, commercial parks, etc.
2.2.3           Waste Management Methods
Waste management is a comprehensive, integrated and rational system approach towards the achievement and maintenance of acceptable environment quality. Fred (2004), Modern method of waste dispose has emerged in response to the recognition of environmental impact of uncontrolled waste disposal. Ekpoh (2009), as simple dumping and burning of waste is no longer fashionable because of the environment and health concern.
The untraceable nature of waste disposal in most of the Nigerian cities required the knowledge of expertise on urban planning and environmental engineers, who are charged with the mortal responsibilities of assigning different land use to appropriate measures capable of reducing the volume of waste before transportation to the incinerator or landfill site. Agunwamba (2003), basically there are various methods of waste management, these include incineration, sanitary land fill, recycling, open dump, etc.
Incineration is a process where combustible wastes are burned at temperature high enough (900-1000`c or 2650-1830`f) to consume all combustible materials, leaving only ash and non-combustibles to be disposed off in a land fill. Under ideal condition, incineration may reduce the volume of waste by.75% to 95%, modern incineration method has electrostatic precipitators, dual scrubbers and filter to reduce the volume of waste to at least 99% of most organic materials (anger and least smith 1998).
Burning waste causes irritation of respiratory tract, aggravated asthma, contributes to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, acute/ chronic respiratory disease. The healthy people experience shortness of breath, sore throats, and breathing difficulties, dizziness, headaches, etc. It is responsible for fluids collection in the lungs and fibrotic changes, growth effects DNA, immune and reproductive system.
Land fill process is designed to concentrate and contain refuse without creating a nuisance or hazard to public health or safety, (Daniel and keller 1995). The idea is to confine the waste, reduce it to the smallest volume and cover with compacted soil to prevent insects, rodents, seagulls, and avoid ground water percolation.
The open dumping method is the most common and widely used in development countries. It involves dumping of the waste in a designated sport which is uncovered. Ekpoh (2003), open dumps are unsanitary, unsightly and generally smelly, with foul odour as they attract rats, insects, flies, snakes, etc.
Composting is a biochemical process in which organic materials such as lawn clipping and Kitchen scraps decompose to a rich solid like material. It is a process of rapid, partial decomposition of moist solid organic waste by aerobic organisms. This is a popular technique in Europe and Asia, where intensive farming centre’s a demand for the compost. It involves the use of natural microbial organism to decompose the organic fraction of waste. Composting is aerobic and produces primarily carbon dioxide, while anaerobic processes produce methane. Such gas contributes to global warming.
Recycling is the reprocessing of discarded material into new, useful product; the ultimate objective is to reduce the amount of waste that must be disposed in landfill or incinerator. It is a way of refilling or re-using of old material that may be considered useless, that has no further use by the consumers, or example, old aluminum cans and glasses bottles are usually melted and recast into new cans and bottles.

2.2.4           Problems of Waste Disposal
The deterioration of the Nigerian urban environment in terms of irresponsible dumping and accumulated solid waste is most apparent in our growing cities today. The dehumanizing effects of these circumstances in our urban lives and blighted environment have often been cited and noted as contributing causes of the Nigerian urban decay, (Asuquo, 1979).
From the United Nations statistics, world population reached 6.1 billion with an annual growth rate of 1.2 percent of about 77 million people per year. Evidence of the increase in population is reflected in poor house, slums and squatter settlement with an estimate of over 750 million people living in urban area. This growth in human population gives rise to mountainous heaps of waste which characterizes our cities and towns, like that of Nairobi of Kenya, Mexico of Mexico city, Lagos of Nigeria etc.
          As population increases, as more people move to this few primate cities in search of better life, the generation and disposal of waste becomes a major public issue effecting both health and the aesthetic value of urban centre Oldnira (1995), argued that one of the major environmental health problems facing Nigerian especially in the major cities is poor waste management. Edu (2003) stated that waste is the greatest physical problem that persistently poses a grave challenge to man on earth. The indiscriminate dumping of waste along streets, market places, residential axis in Port-Harcourt constitutes nuisance which causes serious health hazard, as dumping leads to percolation to pollute ground water supplies, breeding ground for such annoying and disease bearing organisms, such as rats, cockroaches, flies, etc.
          Uchegbu (1998), in his words said man unguided development and ineffective solid waste management in urban centres of Nigeria has resulted to urban degradation and outbreak of diseases like cholera, malaria, typhoid, bronchial disorders, etc.
Udo (2003), has observed that decomposed waste emits carbondioxide (CO2) methane gas (ch4), which enhances global warning white nitrite and nitrate emission causes health hazard such as carcinogenic and mutagenic nitrosamines. Refuse dumps serves as breeding places for disease causing organism such as rats and flies which are major disease vectors associated with garbage. Rats are known to be involved in the spread of bubonic plagues to humans. Rats may contaminate food with their urine transmitting leptospirosis and infective hepatitis. They can transmit salmonella and other infecting organisms (Odiete 1993).
The problem with waste disposal is multi-facet in nature, as most of our cities have been overtaken by mountainous heaps of refuse on roadway, streets, and drainages. This phenomenon can be traced to several factors that includes poor institution framework for waste management by the government, inherent rural attitude of most urban dwellers, poor state of public infrastructure and high urban poverty among others, (okpechi 2007).
In port-Harcourt, the issue surrounding waste disposal is annoying. Waste are indiscriminately dumped on the streets, drain ages, backyards. This becomes a major problem as the aesthetic nature of the place is reduced. Waste obstructs traffic and even lead to accident especially at night when visibility is poor. Indiscriminate dumping of waste along mile one (1) axis of Diobu, leads to flooding during the raining season, as well as property loss.
          Inadequate funding is another important factor militating or acting as a major problem of waste disposal. The cost of labour, purchase and maintenances of vehicles involved in the collection and disposal of waste has risen so high that many sanitation agencies are already finding it difficult to collect and properly dispose all the collected wastes, (Agunwanba, 2003). It was in this contaxt that Uchegbu (1988), argued  that the problem of waste disposal in our cities has gone beyond individuals and communual effect, and therefore charges the government to be more committed in making our cities safe and habitable for all.
           Mabogunje (1974), pointed out that solid waste problem in emerging urban centres in Nigeria is a consequence of drastic change occurring from rural habits, norms and values of the people to those of urban civilization. As most people residing in the cities still patronize their bad habit of backyard dumping. He later argued that they are related to lack of public awareness and enlightenments.
    
2.2.5           Prospect of Our Environment
          In view of a prospective solution to any of the above mentioned problems, their effects, causes and nature which include urban decay. Akintola (1978), demands first an understanding of its intrinsic nature. Various scholars have attempted the cause of our deteriorating urban cities like Turner (1969), Abraham (1978).
          Elisabeth Dowdewell UNEP officer said that “the right to health is an extension to the right of life”. As environmental conservation and management lies solely in human responsibility. According to principle one (1) of the UNEP resolution(1992), “humans are entitled to a healthy environment in harmony with nature”. In order to ensure an effective waste management and sanitation, both urban dwellers and government should come together to maintain a legal and institutional workable framework for waste disposal and management.
     Therefore, a clear understanding depends not so much on the intrinsic nature of realities of the physical environment as objective science would prove them to be, but rather on what man have imagined or conceived in regard to influence around him (Ebong and Bassey, 2004). Therefore, a clear understanding of the cognitive imperative and behavior of people constitute a prerequisite for effective waste disposal vis-a-vis management.
           Additionally, a clear understanding that man’ is an inseparable part of the environmental system constituting his culture and biophysical, equally serving as an “invisible guiding hand” regulating the relationship between man and the aesthetic and hygienic status of his environment, (Stepp and Swan 1970).
       In view of a prospective future for waste management in the study area,
   a. Government should own refuse incinerators or landfills (located outside the cities) for proper management of final disposal sites.
    b. Award for most decent cities or layouts could be instituted to encourage the spirit of competition among residents.
   c. Environmental education should be introduced into the curriculum of primary and secondary schools. Together with sustained public enlightenment and awareness campaigns that are aimed at sensitizing the citizens to imbibe clean and healthy habits for high environmental quality.
   d. The wages paid to refuse disposal staff should be made attractive so that the labourers can take greater interest in their jobs and pay more attention to fitness in the evacuation and transportation of waste.
CHAPTER THREE
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1    Type of data
The following are the type of data for this study
(i)           Source of waste generation
(ii)        Categories of solid waste in port-Harcourt metropolis.
(iii)                 Various method of waste disposal by the people
(iv)                 Data on effect of solid waste on the people
(v)        The frequency of the collection of waste by waste  
management agency.
(vi)                 Facilities used by the agency for waste collection.
(vii)              Data on the type of labour (trained or untrained).
(viii)            Data on financing the management of waste

3.2    Source of Data
The data used for this research work were from two (2) sources. They are primary and secondary sources. The primary data for this study was obtained using various techniques. Such as, questionnaire administration, fieldwork survey and oral interview with the respondents.
The secondary sources were obtained from the library, resource room and available literatures. The secondary sources include research projects, text books, and unpublished books from the internet about the problems of waste management, journals about the effects of waste disposal. However, this research work took advantage of the above data sources to form and effective research work.

3.3    Method of Data Collection
          The methods used for data collection involved the primary source (oral interview, questionnaire administration) and secondary source (text books, research projects, unpublished books from the internet, and journals about the effects of waste disposal). Reconnaissance survey was also done in the process of data collection so as to generate more information for the research work. A close-ended questionnaire was used with not more than four (4) options which covered my objectives, hypotheses and bio-data of the questionnaire which contains personal data.
In each of the six (6) districts (Diobu, Garrision, Marine-Base, Old G.R.A, Borikiri, Rumuola), Twenty (20) questionnaires were administered to the selected streets. This formed a total of 120 respondents in the six (6) districts. The first house was selected at the beginning of each street and the next two houses were skipped before the fourth house was also sampled. This stratified random sampling pattern was carried out on both sides of the street. Data from each respondent was gotten through the administration of questionnaire and oral interview.

3.4    Method of Data Analysis
          The composition will be analyzed in relation to the various land uses in the study area. Use of tables, pie chart and histogram is also employed for the data analysis and presentation. Both descriptive and inferential techniques were employed in the data analysis.
          Descriptively, data will be described using tables, maps, frequencies, and measures of central tendency. The inferential statistical tool used in analyzing the data collection from the field is Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation which was used to test for two hypotheses. The first hypothesis was to test for the significant relationship between the volume of waste generated and the health condition of the respondents. To test for this, two questions were drafted into the questionnaire (to know the size of waste collection in the area and to know how often they treat health problems relating to indiscriminate disposal of waste in the area) to obtain data used for testing the hypothesis.
          The second hypothesis was to test for the significant relationship between inadequate waste bin (silo bin) and indiscriminate disposal of waste. This was also carried out by drafting two questions into the questionnaire (to know the number of waste bin and factors leading to indiscriminate disposal of waste in the area) to derive data used for testing this hypothesis.
3.5    Population of the Study
          It is usually not possible for a researcher to interview the entire population of the area. The population of port-Harcourt city (within it municipal boundaries) has risen from 7,000 residents in 1921, to more than 800,000 in 2006 (census, 2006). The total household was one-sixth (1/6) of the total population which is 133,333 households, since six (6) people made a household. It is a heterogeneous population consisting of male, female, indigenes and non-indigenes, students, public and private works, traders, residing in different areas and streets in port-Harcourt metropolis.

3.6    Sampling Technique
          In order to study waste disposal in port-Harcourt, the stratified random sampling technique was applied base on the division of the study area. The districts include Diobu, Garrison, Marine-Base, Old G.R.A, Borikiri, Rumuola. In the study area, the streets were selected randomly (picking six(6) piece of papers out of many in a bag) through observation of the most affected streets. In each of these streets, households were chosen using stratified random sampling. The first house was selected at the beginning of each street and the next two houses were skipped before the fourth was also sampled. This method was applied on both parts of the streets.
          In each of the six(6) districts, 20 questionnaires were administered to the selected streets. Data about each respondent was gotten through the administered questionnaire. This formed a total of 120 respondents in the six (6) districts. The content of the respondents, the factors of indiscriminate waste disposal in port-Harcourt metropolis, the method of waste disposal, the environmental and health problems caused by indiscriminate waste  dump in port-Harcourt metropolis and the role of Government and other waste management agencies in port-Harcourt metropolis. This method of sampling technique was adopted to ensure that a large percentage of the population is represented and fairly sampled accordingly.

CHAPTER FOUR
DATA PRESENTATION AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS
This chapter deals with data presentation, analysis and discussion of findings. The data obtained through the administration of questionnaires on the problems and prospects of waste disposal in Port- Harcourt metropolis, would be analyzed using graphics and illustrations such as tables, histograms, pie-charts, frequencies and percentages. For testing of hypothesis, Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation Coefficient (PPMCC) would be used.

4.1    Data presentation and analysis
Table 4.1: category of solid waste generated in the study area.
RESPONSE
FREQUENCY
PERCENTAGE (%)
Municipal/ Domestic waste
88
73.33
Industrial waste
-
-
Commercial waste
30
25
Miscellaneous
2
1.67
TOTAL
120
100

TABLE 4.1 and fig 4.1.1 shows that municipal, domestic waste was mostly generated in the study area with 73.33% (88) of the respondents confirming it, while 25% (30) of the respondent are of the view that commercial waste is mostly generated in the area. 1.67% (2) respondents agreed it was miscellaneous waste, while non agreed it was industrial waste because industries weren’t seen around the since the study area (districts) is filled with residential and commercial land uses.




TABLE 4.2: People who have waste dump (silo bin) around the street.
RESPONSE
FREQUENCY
PERCENTAGE (%)
YES
90
75
NO
30
25
TOTAL
120
100

The data in table 4.2 and fig. 4.2.1 shows that 75% (90) of the respondents had waste bins (silo bins) around their streets, while 25% (30) of the respondents did not have waste bin in their streets. This is  because some areas like Diobu, Marine base and Borikiri lacked waste dump (silo bins).

Fig. 4.2.1

TABLE 4.3 Size of waste collected in streets of the study area.
RESPONSE
FREQUENCY
PERCENTAGE (%)
300./tones
23
19.16
500m/tones
49
40.83
100m/tones
10
8.33
1000,& above tones
38
31.66
TOTAL
120
100

Table 4.3 and fig. 4.3.1 shows the size of waste collected in the streets of the study area. 40.83% (49) of the respondents agreed 500 metric tones, 31.66% (38) of the respondents confirmed 1000m and above tones. While 19.16 % (23) and 8.33 % (10) went for 300m/ tones and 100m/ tones respectively.

Table 4.4 : How often is waste disposed from your home daily.
RESPONSE
FREQUENCY
PERCENTAGE (%)
Once
99
82.5
Twice
15
12.5
Thrice
4
3.33
Four or more
2
1.67
TOTAL
120
100


The data in table 4.4 and fig 4.4.1 shows the duration in which waste is being disposed daily. 82.5 % (99) of the respondents dispose their waste once daily, 12.5% (15) dispose their waste twice daily 3.33% (4) of the respondents dispose their waste three times  daily, and 1.67% (2) went for four times or more daily.

Table 4.5: Number of waste bins found in that location
RESPONSE
FREQUENCY
PERCENTAGE (%)
1
44
36.6
2
39
32.5
3
22
18.33
4 and above
15
12.5
TOTAL
120
100


Table  4.5  and fig. 4.5.1 shows that 36.67% (44) of the respondents opined its one (1), while 32.5% (39) agreed two (2). 18.33% agreed three (3), and 12.5% of the respondent confirmed 4 and above.

Table 4.6: Appropriate dumping of waste in the waste bins.
RESPONSE
FREQUENCY
PERCENTAGE (%)
YES
92
76.67
NO
28
23.33
TOTAL
120
100
Table 4.6 and fig. 4.6.1 describes the appropriate dumping of waste in the waste bins. 76.67% (92) agreed that waste is dumped appropriately in the waste bins, while 23.33% (28) of the respondents disagreed.



Fig. 4.6.1
Table 4.7: Factors leading to inappropriate disposal of waste.

RESPONSE
FREQUENCY
PERCENTAGE %
No waste bins
23
19.17
Waste bins are always filled up
38
31.66
High number of persons using the same bin
54
45
Others specify
5
4.17
Total
120
100


      
This table shows the factors that lead to inappropriate dumping of waste. 45% (54) of the respondents agreed that it is because of high number of persons using same bin as a means of waste disposal. 31.66% (38) agreed that waste bins are always filled up leading to overflow of waste and causes indiscriminate disposal of waste. 19.17% (23) of the respondents said they don’t have waste bins, while 4.17% (5) of the respondents agreed to other causes that lead to inappropriate dumping of waste.


TABLE 4.8: Amount of money spent on waste evacuation.
RESPONSE
FREQUENCY
PERCENTAGE (%)
500
34
28.33
1000
44
36.67
2000
24
20
specify
18
15
TOTAL
120
100

This data shows that 36.7 %( 44) spend 1,000 (one thousand Naira) on waste evacuation mostly by private waste disposal companies. 28.33% (34) of the respondents said they spend 500 (Five hundred Naira) to dispose their waste. It is done by employing the services of Hausa boys/men to dispose their waste. 20% (24) of the respondents agreed to spending 2,000 (two thousand Naira) to private owned waste disposal companies to dispose their amounts ranging from 100 (a hundred naira) to 5,000 (five thousand Naira).

TABLE 4.9: Health problems as a result of indiscriminate waste dump.
RESPONSE
FREQUENCY
PERCENTAGE
Malaria
55
45.83
Cholera
10
8.33
Dysentery
7
5.83
Typhoid
48
40
TOTAL
120
100


          Table 4.9 and fig. 4.9.1 shows the health problems encountered by the people of this study area, as a result of indiscriminate waste dump. 45.83% (55) of the respondents opined that its malaria, 40% (48) agreed it was typhoid, while 8.33% (10) said it was cholera and 5.83% (7) went for dysentery.
Table 4.10: Number of times health problem is being treated.
RESPONSE
FREQUENCY
PERCENTAGE
Once a week
17
14.16
Twice a week
10
8.33
Monthly
56
46.67
Twice a month
37
30.83
TOTAL
120
100

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